CIUNG WANARA THE PRINCE OF GALUH

Tatang M. Amirin; 24 Januari 2011

From Wikipedia

This story originates from a Sundanese oral tradition called Pantun Sunda, which then transferred into books written by some Sundanese writers, both in Sundanese and Indonesian.

“Ciung…ciung…..ciung.” The “beo” bird introduces her name.

There was once a kingdom in West Java, called Galuh, which was ruled by King Prabu Permana Di Kusumah. After having reigned for a long time the King decided to become an ascetic and he therefore summoned his minister Aria Kebonan to the palace. Apart from this Aria Kebonan had also to come to the king to bring report about the kingdom. While he was waiting in the front-gallery, he saw servants busy walking to and fro, arranging everything for the king. The minister thought how nice it would be to be a king. Every command was obeyed, every wish fulfilled. He therefore wanted to be a king also.

As he was daydreaming there, the king called him.

“Well, Aria Kebonan, is it true that you wish to be a king?” The king knew it because he was endowed with supernatural power.

“No, Your Highness, I shall not be able to.”

“Do not lie, Aria Kebonan, I know it.”

“Excuse me, Your Highness, I have just thought of it.” “Well, I shall make you king. As long as I am away to meditate, you shall be king and rule in a proper way. Then you shall not treat my two wives, Dewi Pangrenyep and Dewi Naganingrum as your wife.”

“All right, Your Highness.”

“I shall change your appearance into a handsome man. Your name will be Prabu Barma Wijaya. Tell the people that the king has become young and I myself shall go to a secret place. Thus be a kings!”

In a moment Aria Kebonan’s appearance resembled Prabu Permana di Kusumah’s, but looked ten years younger. People believed his announcement that he was King Prabu Permana Di Kusumah who had become ten years younger and changed his name into Prabu Barma Wijaya. Only one man did not believe his stoiy. It was Uwa Batara Lengser who knew the agreement between the king and the minister. Prabu Barma Wijaya became proud and humiliated Uwa Batara Lengser who could do nothing. He was also rude towards the two queens. Both avoided him, except in public when they behaved as if they were Prabu Barma Wijaya’s wives.

One night both queens dreamt that the moon feel upon them. They reported it to the king which gave him a fright, as such a dream was usually a warning to women who were going to be pregnant. This was impossible as he was not guilty of treating both queens as his wives. Uwa Batara Lengser appeared and proposed to invite a new ascetic, called Ajar Sukaresi – who was none else than King Prabu Permana Di Kusumah – to explain the strange dream. Prabu Barma Wijaya agreed. As soon as the ascetic arrived at the palace he was asked by the king about the meaning of the dream.

“Both of the queens are expecting a child, Your Highness.” Although startled by the answer, Prabu Barma Wijaya could still control himself. Eager to know how far the ascetic dared to lie to him, he put another question. “Will they be girls or boys?”

“Both are boys, Your Highness.” At this the king could no longer restrain himself, took out his creese and stabbed Ajar Sukaresi to death. He failed. The creese was crooked. “Do you want me to be dead? In that case, I will I shall be dead.” Then the ascetic fell down. The king kicked the dead body so violently that it was thrown into the forest where it changed into a big dragon, called Nagawiru. At court something strange happened. Both queens were indeed pregnant. After some time Dewi Pangrenyep gave birth to a son who was called Hariang Banga, while Dewi Naganingrum gave birth at a later date.

One day when Prabu Barma Wijaya was visiting Dewi Naganingrum, the unborn child spoke: “Barma Wijaya, you have already forgotten a lot of promises. The more you do cruel things, the shorter your power will last.”

This made the King very angry and at the same time he was afraid of the threat by the baby. He wanted to get rid of it and soon he found the way to do that. He asked for Dewi Pangrenyep’s help to be quit of Dewi Naganingrum’s baby who would be born as a rascal according to his dream. He would not be suitable for the ruler of the country together with Dewi Pangrenyep’s son Hariang Banga. The queen believed it and agreed, but what was to be done?

“We shall exchange the baby with a dog and throw the child into the Citanduy river.” This they did after covering Dewi Naganingrum’s eyes with some wax, pretending to help the poor woman. The baby was put into a basket and thrown into the Citanduy river after a baby dog was laid on the lap of the unlucky mother.

Soon the queen knew that she was holding a baby dog and was very sad. The two evil-doers tried to get rid of Dewi Naganingrum by telling lies to the people, but nobody believed them. Even Uwa Batara Lengser could do nothing as the king as well as Queen Dewi Pangrenyep, was very powerful. Barma Wijaya even sentenced Dewi Naganingrum to death because she had given birth to a dog, which was shameful for the country. Uwa Batara Lengser got the instruction to carry out the command. He took the unlucky woman to the wood, but he did not kill her, instead he built a good hut for her. To convince the king and Dewi Pangrenyep that he had carried out the order, he showed them Dewi Naganingrum’s bloodstained clothes.

At the village Geger Sunter, by the Citanduy river, there lived an old couple who usually put their bow-net in the river. One morning they went to the river to fetch the bow-net, and were very surprised to find a casket in the net instead of a fish. Opening it, they found a lovely baby. They carried the baby home and took care of it and loved it as their own.

As time went by the baby grew to a fine young man who accompanied the old man hunting in the wood. One day they saw a bird and a monkey.

“What animal are they, Father?”

“One which can fly is a bird and is called Ciung, and the other is  a Wanara (monkey), my son.”

Wanara (monkey)

“In that case, then call me Ciung Wanara.” The old man agreed as the meaning of both words suited to the character of the boy.

One day he asked the old man why he was different from the other boys of the village and why they honoured him much. Then the old man told him that he had been driven to the place in a box and was not a boy from the village.

“Your parents are surely noble people from Galuh.”

“In that case, I have to go thither in search for my real parents, Father.”

“That is right, but you should go with a friend. In the casket there is an egg. Take it, go to the wood and find a fowl to hatch it.”

Ciung Wanara took the egg, made for the wood as told by the old man, but he could not find a fowl. Instead he found Nagawiru who was kind to him and who offered him to hatch the egg. He laid the egg under the dragon and shortly after it was hatched. The chicken grew up rapidly. Ciung Wanara put it in the basket, left the old man and his wife and made for Galuh.

Ciung Wanara (Creator: ..jong-preanger on deviantART)

On arriving there the hen had already grown into a big and strong game-cock. While Ciung Wanara was looking for the owner of the casket, he took part in cock-fighting. His cock never lost. The news about the young man whose cock always won at cock-fighting also reached Prabu Barma Wijaya who ordered Uwa Batara Lengser to find the young man. The old man immediately felt that he was Dewi Naganingrum’s son, especially when Ciung Wanara showed him the basket in which he had been thrown into the river. Uwa Batara Lengser told Ciung Wanara that the king had ordered such besides accusing his mother of having given birth to a dog.

“If your cock wins in the fight against that of the king, just ask him half of the kingdom as a reward of your victory.”

The next morning Ciung Wanara appeared in front of Prabu Barma Wijaya and told him what Lengser had proposed. The king agreed as he was sure of the victory of his cock, called si Jeling. It proved that the cock lost his life in the fight and the king was compelled to fulfill his promise to give Ciung Wanara half of his kingdom.

Fighting cocks

Ciung Wanara became king of half and had an iron prison built to keep bad people. One day Prabu Barma Jaya and Dewi Pangrenyep came to inspect the prison. As they were inside, Ciung Wanara shut the door and made it known to the people of the country. They cheered.

Hariang Banga, Dewi Pangrenyep’s son, however, was sad and attacked Ciung Wanara and his followers. Nobody won. All of a sudden there appeared King Prabu Permana Di Kusumah accompanied by Dewi Naganingrum and Uwa Batara Lengser.

“Hariang Banga and Ciung Wanara!” the king said, “Stop fighting!. It is pamali – taboo- fighting against own brothers. You are brothers, both of you are my sons. Both of you will reign here, Ciung Wanara in Galuh and Hariang Banga in eastern of Pamali river or Brebes river, the new country. Let Dewi Pangrenyep and Barma Wijaya who was Aria Kebonan in prison as they are bad people.”

Since then Galuh was prosperous again as in the days of Prabu Permana Di Kusumah.

The Bahasa Version

LEGENDA CIUNG WANARA

Situs Rajegwesi Ciamis : Situs  Ciung Wanara

Prabu Barma Wijaya Kusuma memerintah kerajaan Galuh yang sangat luas. Permaisurinya 2 orang. Yang pertama bernama Pohaci Naganingrum dan yang kedua bernama Dewi Pangrenyep. Keduanya sedang mengandung

Pada bulan ke-9 Dewi Pangrenyep melahirkan seorang putra. Raja sangat bersuka cita dan sang putra diberi nama Hariang Banga.

Hariang Banga telah berusia 3 bulan, namun permaisuri Pohaci Naganingrum belum juga melahirkan. Khawatir kalau-kalau Pohaci melahirkan seorang putra yang nanti dapat merebut kasih sayang raja terhadap Hariang Banga, Dewi Pangrenyep bermaksud hendak mencelakakan putra Pohaci.

Setelah bulan ke-13 Pohaci pun melahirkan. Atas upaya Dewi Pangrenyep tak seorang dayang-dayang pun diperkenankan menolong Pohaci, melainkan Pangrenyep sendiri.

Dengan kelihaian Pangrenyep, putra Pohaci diganti dengan seekor anjing. Dikatakannya bahwa Pohaci telah melahirkan seekor anjing. Bayi Pohaci dimasukkannya dalam kandaga emas disertai telur ayam dan dihanyutkannya ke sungai Citandui.

Karena aib yang ditimbulkan Pohaci Naganingrum yang telah melahirkan seekor anjing, raja sangat murka dan menyuruh Si Lengser (pegawai istana) untuk membunuh Pohaci. Si Lengser tidak sampai hati melaksanakan perintah raja terhadap Pohaci, permaisuri junjungannya. Pohaci diantarkannya ke desa tempat kelahirannya, namun dilaporkannya telah dibunuh.

Adalah seorang Aki bersama istrinya, Nini Balangantrang, tinggal di desa Geger Sunten tanpa bertetangga. Sudah lama mereka menikah, tetapi belum dikarunia anak. Suatu malam Nini bermimpi kejatuhan bulan purnama. Mimpi itu diceritakannya kepada suami dan sang suami mengetahui takbir mimpi itu, bahwa mereka akan mendapat rezeki. Malam itu juga Aki pergi ke sungai membawa jala untuk menangkap ikan.

Betapa terkejut dan gembira ia mendapatkan kandaga emas yang berisi bayi beserta telur ayam, Mereka asuh bayi itu dengan sabar dan penuh kasih sayang. Telur ayam itu pun mereka tetaskan, mereka memeliharanya hingga menjadi seekor ayam jantan yang ajaib dan perkasa. Anak angkat ini mereka beri nama Ciung Wanara.

Setelah besar bertanyalah Ciung Wanara kepada ayah dan ibu angkatnya. Terus terang Aki dan Nini menceritakan tentang asal-usul Ciung Wanara. Setelah mendengar cerita ayah dan ibu angkatnya, tahulah Ciung Wanara akan dirinya.

Suatu hari Ciung Wanara pamit untuk menyabung ayamnya dengan ayam raja, karena didengarnya raja gemar menyabung ayam. Taruhannya ialah, bila ayam Ciung Wanara kalah ia rela mengorbankan nyawanya. Tetapi bila ayam raja kalah, raja harus bersedia mengangkatnya menjadi putra mahkota. Raja menerima dengan gembira tawaran tersebut.

Sebelum ayam berlaga, ayam Ciung Wanara berkokok dengan anehnya, melukiskan peristiwa benahun-tahun yang lampau tentang permaisuri yang dihukum mati dan kandaga emas yang berisi bayi yang dihanyutkan. Raja tidak menyadari hal itu, tetapi sebaliknya Si Lengser sangat terkesan akan hal itu. Bahkan ia menyadari sekarang Ciung Wanara yang ada di hadapannya adalah putra raja sendiri.

Setelah persabungan, ayam baginda kalah dan ayam Ciung Wanara menang. Raja menepati janji dan Ciung Wanara diangkat menjadi putra mahkota. Dalam pesta pengangkatan putra mahkota, raja membagi 2 kerajaan untuk Ciung Wanara dan Hariang Banga. Selesai pesta pengangkatan putra mahkota Si Lengser bercerita kepada raja tentang hal yang sesungguhnya mengenai permaisuri Pohaci Naganingrum dan Ciung Wanara.

Mendengar cerita itu raja memerintahkan pengawal agar Dewi Pehgrenyep ditangkap. Akibatnya timbul perkelahian antara Hariang Banga dengan Ciung Wanara. Tubuh Hariang Banga dilemparkan ke seberang sungai Cipamali yang sedang banjir besar. Sejak itulah kerajaan Galuh dibagi menjadi 2 bagian dengan batas sungai Cipamali. Di bagian barat diperintah oleh Hariang Banga. Orang-orangnya menyenangi kecapi dan menyenangi pantun. Sedangkan bagian timur diperintah oleh Ciung Wanara. Orang-orangnya menyenangi wayang kulit dan tembang. Kegemaran penduduk akan kesenian tersebut masih jelas dirasakan sampai sekarang.

Tempat Ciung Wanara bersabung ayam, Ciamis

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