First of all, let me tell you what manguni is, cited from, as follow.

peta sulawesi

Around Manado, on the isle of Sulawesi, people consider owls very wise. They call them Burung Manguni. Every time someone wants to travel, they listen to the owls. The owls make two different sounds; the first means it is safe to go, and the second means it’s better to stay at home. The Minahasa, people around Manado, take those warnings very seriously. They stay at home when Manguni says so. Information thanks to Alex van Poppel

Nah, jadi, manguni itu sebutan orang Minahasa (kalau tidak salah, orang Batak juga) terhadap burung hantu. Urang Sunda menamakannya bueuk, sementara Wong Jowo menyebutnya guwek. Mirip, ya! Orang Inggris menyebutnya owl.

Hi, do you know that the Sundanese name for owl is bueuk (it’s pronounced like “boo work”), while the Javanese call it guwek (like “go work”). It’s, I guessed, because the owl’s sound heard like that. The Indonesian name for the owl is burung hantu (the ghost bird), for they fly and hunt in the dark night, and their features, especially their eyes, look like ghost eyes, while their bodies unseen, their eyes shining in the dark of night,  frightening everybody.

Enggak tahu kenapa orang Minahasa menyebut si burung hantu dengan nama Burung Manguni. Kalau Wong Jowo dan Urang Sunda mah menyebut memanggilnya Guwek atau Bueuk teh karena si burung tersebut memperkenalkan dirinya sendiri dengan menyebutkan nama “bueuk” (menurut telinga urang Sunda)  atau “guwek” (menurut telinga wong Jowo).” Kalau sedang “kenalan” lembut deh dia menyebut nama. Kalau lagi teriak, wah, suaranya “mengerikan”: “Hu … hu … hu.” Maka ada dongeng inggris si burung bertanya-tanya “who … who … who …” (saha, saha, saha … sopo, sopo, sopo), katanya. Ada yang dicari-cari oleh dia, siapa yang “mencuri titik-titiknya.” Mau tahu apa yang dia cari? Nanti beta kisahkan dongengnya.

Nah, ihwal mengenalkan diri, coba saja dengarkan kalau dia berbuyi, pasti : Bueuk … bueuk … bueuk (pasang ceulina urang Sunda, atuh!) atau: guwek … guwek … guwek (kali ini pasang kupinge wong Jowo).  Kuping orang berbahasa Inggris mendengar si burung mengenalkan diri menyebut nama: owl …  owl … owl . . . [Kali, ya!? Coba aja tulisan “jawa”  guwek didekatkan dengan owl:  GUWEK – OWL –> hilangkan G jawa –> UWEK –ganti K jadi L => UWEL = oUWL. Ya, kan?!]
Hihi . . . lucu juga ya kalau ada orang Sunda, Jawa dan Ingggris (Londo ngendi wae, keno lah, angger ngomong asli bahasa ibunya Inggris), ngamati burung hantu bebarengan. Nyari-nyari, manggil-manggil, lalu nirukan bunyinya . . . [Kayak gamelan:  Nong – neng – gung;  Nong – neng  – gung]

Guwek . . .  bueuk . . . owl!   Guwek . . . bueuk . . . owl!
Guwek . . .  bueuk . . . owl!   Guwek . . . bueuk . . . owl!
Guwek . . . bueuk . . .  owl!   Guwek . . . bueuk  . . . owl!

Tahu binatang bernama kucing? Urang Sunda mah memanggilnya “meong” (pan si kucing suka meong-meong ngenalkan nama dirinya).  Wong Jowo suka mendengar anjing mengenalkan diri: gug … gug … gug …. Maka suka-suka anjing disebut gugug. Orang Inggris mendengarnya mengenalkan diri: mouwg … mouwg … mouwg ..., eh kadang terdengar kaya douwg … douwg … douwg ..., maka selalu di mana-mana disapa dengan nama panggilan DOG. Hehe.

Burung hantu itu macam-macam. Ada burung hantu gundul yang lazim banyak ditemui di Indonesia (gambar atas dan bawah ini). Ada burung hantu “bertanduk” seperti gambar di bawah ini.  Orang Inggris (maksudnya orang berbahasa Inggris) menyebutnya the great horned owl (burung hantu besar bertanduk), karena kepalanya seperti bertanduk.

Kepala burung hantu bertanduk itu, jika diamat-amati, persis seperti kepala seorang guru besar atau sarjana yang sedang mengenakan topi akademik (perhatikan di Indonesia ketika para sarjana diwisuda oleh guru besar — itu tradisi Eropa yang kita tiru). Maka dalam ceritera dunia binatang (fabel) di Eropa, dijadikanlah si burung hantu bertanduk itu sebagai profesor, sebagai intelektual, sebagai cendekiawan (the scholar), SI CENDEKIA.

Soalnya juga, burung hantu bertanduk itu banyaknya di daerah Utara, maka namanya juga kan Bubo Virginianus.


Nih paparannya.

The Great Horned Owl was first seen in the Virginia colonies, so its species name was created from the Latinised form of the name of this territory (originally named for Queen Elizabeth I, the “Virgin Queen”). The first published description was made in 1788 by Johann Gmelin. Great Horned Owls are sometimes known as Hoot Owls, Cat Owls or Winged Tiger.

Description: Great Horned Owls can vary in colour from a reddish brown to a grey or black and white. The underside is a light grey with dark bars and a white band of feathers on the upper breast. They have large, staring yellow-orange eyes, bordered in most races by an orange-buff facial disc. The name is derived from tufts of feathers that appear to be “horns” which are sometimes referred to as “ear tufts” but have nothing to do with hearing at all. The large feet are feathered to the ends of the toes, and the immature birds resemble the adults. Females are 10 to 20% larger than males.

Size: Length 46-63.5cm (18-25″) Wingspan 91-152cm (36-60″) Weight 900-1800g (32-63.5 oz)

Habits: Activity generally begins at dusk, but in some regions, may be seen in late afternoon or early morning. Both sexes may be very aggressive towards intruders when nesting.

Voice: Great Horned Owls have a large repertoire of sounds, ranging from deep booming hoots to shrill shrieks. The male’s resonant territorial call “hoo-hoo hoooooo hoo-hoo” can be heard over several miles during a still night. Both sexes hoot, but males have a lower-pitched voice than females. They give a growling “krrooo-oo” or screaming note when attacking intruders. Other sounds include a “whaaa whaaaaaa-a-a-aarrk” from disturbed birds, a catlike “MEEE-OWww”, barks, hair-raising shrieks, coos, and beak snapping. Some calls are ventriloquial. Most calling occurs from dusk to about midnight and then again just before dawn.

Hunting & Food: Great Horned Owls hunt by perching on snags and poles and watching for prey, or by gliding slowly above the ground. From high perches they dive down to the ground with wings folded, before snatching prey. Prey are usually killed instantly when grasped by its large talons. A Great Horned Owl may take prey 2 to 3 times heavier than itself. They also hunt by walking on the ground to capture small prey or wading into water to snatch frogs and fish. They have been known to walk into chicken coops to take domestic fowl. Rodents and small rabbits can be swallowed whole while larger prey are carried off and ripped apart at feeding perches or at the nest. Birds are often plucked first, and legs and wing tips discarded. An extremely wide range of prey species (at least 253 identified) are captured, but rabbits and hares are its preferred prey. Mammalian prey includes all coexisting rodents, squirrels, mink, skunks, raccoons, armadillos, porcupines, domestic cats and dogs, shrews, moles, muskrats, and bats. Bird prey includes all other Owls (except Snowy Owl), grouse, woodpeckers, crows, turkeys, pigeons, Red-tailed Hawks, bitterns, Great Blue Heron, ducks, swans, gulls, etc. Reptiles include snakes, turtles, lizards, and young alligators. Amphibians include frogs, toads, and salamanders. Other foods include fish, large insects, scorpions, centipedes, crayfish, worms, spiders, and road killed animals.
Pellets are very large, about  7.6 to 10.2 cm (3- 4″) long and 3.8 cm (1.5″) thick. Pellets are dark greyish-black and compact. Skulls as wide as 3 cm (1.2″) are regurgitated whole. Pellets are regurgitated 6 to 10 hours after eating.

Breeding: Nesting season is in January or February when the males and females hoot to each other. When close they bow to each other, with drooped wings. Mutual bill rubbing and preening also occurs. They do not build a nest of their own but utilise the nests of other birds such as the hawk, crow and heron. They may also use squirrel nests, hollows in trees, rocky caves, clumps of witches broom, abandoned buildings, or on artificial platforms.  They are extremely aggressive when defending the nest and will continue to attack until the intruder is killed or driven off. Normally, two to four eggs are laid and incubated by the female only for 26-35 days. Young start roaming from the nest onto nearby branches at 6 to 7 weeks, when they are called “branchers”, but cannot fly well until 9 to 10 weeks old. They are fed for another few weeks as they are slowly weaned. Families remain loosely associated during summer before young disperse in the autumn. Adults tend to remain near their breeding areas year-round while juveniles disperse widely, over 250 km (150 miles) in the autumn. Territories are maintained by the same pair for as many as 8 consecutive years, however, these Owls are solitary in nature, only staying with their mate during the nesting season. Average home ranges in various studies have been shown to be approximately 2.5 square kms (1 square mile).

Mortality: A long-lived Owl, captive birds have been known to live 29 to 38 years, and wild Owls up to 13 years. Most mortality is related to man – shootings, traps, road kills and electrocutions. The only natural enemies are other Great Horned Owls and, occasionally, Northern Goshawks during disputes over nest sites. Peregrine Falcons have also been observed attacking Great Horned Owls.

Habitat: Great Horned Owls have adapted to many different places and climates. They occur in habitats from dense forests, deserts and plains to city parks. They have been known to inhabit the same area as the diurnal red-tailed hawk.

Distribution: Great Horned Owls are found throughout North America from the northern treeline and then in Central and South America. They are resident year-round, however, birds living in the northern part of the species’ range may migrate south.

Status: Widespread and locally frequent.

Original Description: Gmelin, Johann Freidrich. 1788. Systema Naturae, 1, pt. 1, p. 287.

Subspecies: B. v. virginianus, B. v. elachistus, B. v. heterocnemis, B. v. lagophonus, B. v. mayensis, B. v. mesembrinus, B. v. nacurutu, B. v. nigrescens, B. v. pacificus, B. v. pallescens, B. v. saturatus, B. v. subarcticus, B. v. wapacuthu, B. v. deserti


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